# Civil Services Examination Physics Syllabus

## Civil Services Syllabus for Physics

**Syllabus for Physics**

**Paper I (Maximum Marks 300)**

**1. Classical Mechanics**

- Mechanics of Particles: Kepler’s laws, Fields and potentials, Laws of motion, conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and coriolis forces, motion under a central force, conservation of angular momentum, gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Rutherford scattering, center of mass an laboratory reference frames, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy, two-body problem, reduced mass.
- Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: Elastic and inelastic collisions, conservation theorems for energy, momentum and angular momentum, system of particles, center of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion, rigid body, degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity, angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, Di and tri-atomic molecules, Precessional motion, top, gyroscope, equation of motion for rotation, molecular rotations (as rigid bodies).
- Mechanics of Continuous Media: Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation, Stokes’ law and applications, Poiseuille’s equation and Bernoulli’s equation.
- Special Relativity: Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process, Michelson-Morley experiment and its implication, covariance of equations of physics and four dimensional momentum vector.

**2. Electricity and Magnetism:**

- Electrostatics and Magnetostatics: Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field, energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential, method of images and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications, Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere, solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field, Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss and dielectrics, polarization.
- Current Electricity: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law; Self-and mutual-inductances, mean and R M S values in AC circuits, DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components, Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications, Series and parallel resonances, quality factor, principle of transformer.
- Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation: Blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law, Stefan - Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans’ law, electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell’s equations, total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion, Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics, displacement current and Maxwell’s equations, Fresnel’s relations, Rayleigh scattering and wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem; Vector and scalar potentials.

**3. Thermal and Statistical Physics:**

- Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy, Van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants, Clausius- Clapeyron equation, isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes, Maxwell relations and applications and Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems, adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases, Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential and Dulong-Pet it, Einstein, and Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids.
- Statistical Physics: Concept of negative temperatures, Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation.

**4. Waves and Optics**

- Waves: Stationary waves in a string, simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance, beats, pulses and wave packets, reflection and refraction from Huygens principle, phase and group velocities.
- Geometrical Optics: System of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations, laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s principle, Matrix method in paraxial optics-thin lens formula and nodal planes.
- Interference: Michelson interferometer, multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer, Interference of light-Young’s experiment, Newton’s rings, interference by thin films.
- Diffraction: Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern, Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture and Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating and resolving power.
- Polarization and Modern Optics: Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence, principles of fiber optics, attenuation, material dispersion, single mode fibers, pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibers, Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients, holography and simple applications, double refraction, quarter wave plate, focusing of laser beams, ruby and He-Ne lasers, optical activity, production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light and three-level scheme for laser operation.

**Paper II (Maximum Marks 300)**

**1. Atomic and Molecular Physics:**Spectroscopic notation of atomic states, Raman effect and molecular structure, Zeeman effect, Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom, importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy, elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR, elementary ideas about lamb shift and its significance, Laser Raman spectroscopy, L-S coupling, J-J coupling, fluorescence and phosphorescence, FrankCondon principle and applications and elementary theory of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules.

**2. Quantum Mechanics:**Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator, particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals, wave-particle dualitiy, hydrogen atom, Schroedinger equation and expectation values, angular momentum, reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular barrier, spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices and uncertainty principle.

**3. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics:**Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications, elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity, crystalline and amorphous structure of matter, different crystal systems, space groups, methods of determination of crystal structure, band theory of solids - conductors, insulators and semiconductors, magnetism (dia, para and ferromagnetism), thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory and X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Apart from this, amplifiers and osci l lators; Op-amps, pn-p and n-p-n transistors, simple logic circuits, thermistors, solar cells, fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers, digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan’s laws, logic gates and truth tables, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors and FET, JFET and MOSFET is also included in the syllabus of civil services main examination.

**4. Nuclear and Particle Physics:**Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces, elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy, basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment, nuclear reactors, nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars, shell model of the nucleus - successes and limitations, Meson theory of nuclear forces, salient features of nuclear forces, gamma decay and internal conversion, violation of parity in beta decay, semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas, Q-value of nuclear reactions. Besides this, elementary ideas about unification of forces, conservation laws, classification of elementary particles and their interactions, quark structure of hadrons, physics of neutrinos and field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions is also included in the syllabus of part II paper of physics.

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