NDA Chemistry Syllabus

NDA Syllabus for Chemistry

NDA SYLLABUS FOR CHEMISTRY

Unit 1 Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic  

Measurement in chemistry (significant figures, Dimensional analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and elements, and purification), Law of chemcial combination and Daiton's Atomic theory, Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical formulae). Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).

Unit 2 Elements, their Occurrence and extraction    

Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology, extraction of metals (metallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of metals and their purification). Mineral wealth of India. Qualitative test of metals.

Unit 3 States of Matter      

Gaseous state (measurable properties of gases, Boyle's Law, Charle's Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro's hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton's law of partial pressure). Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas, deviation from ideal behaviour).

The solid state (classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity).

Unit 4 Atomic Structures  

Constituents of the atom (Discovery of electron, Rutherford model of the atom).

Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra. Bohr's model of Hydrogen atom. Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau principle).

Dual nature of matter and radiation. The uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals, Electronic configuration of atoms.

Unit 5 Chemical Families –

Periodic Properties Mendeleev's Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types of elements (inner transition elements-f-block elements). Periodic trends in properties. (lonization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).

Unit 6 Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure   

Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond (Hydrogen and some simple molecules, carbon compounds. Hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds).

Coordinate covalent bond (lonic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state (lonic, moelcular and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.

Molecules: Molecular orbital method. Formation of H2,O2, N2, F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation, Dipole moment and structure of molecules.

Unit 7 The Solid State        

Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed structures. lonic-radii, Silicates (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids (point defects only). Properties of solids, Amorphous solids.

The Gaseous state.

Ideal gas equation-Kinetic Theory (fundamentals only)

Unit 8 Solutions      

Types of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult's law. Colligative properties, Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Mole concept-stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration unit.

Unit 9 Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics   

Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy (Internal energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy change in a reaction, Hess's Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts). Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vaporization).

Sources of energy (conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source).

Second law of thermodynamics : Entropy, Free energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy available for useful work.

Unit 10            Chemical Equilibrium       

Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes).

Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems).

Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar's principle).

Equilibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts).

Unit 11            Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry

Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (nearest equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers (rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.

Electrolytic conduction, Voltaic cell. Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb's free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis.

Unit 12 Transference of Heat         

Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions (factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysis). Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions?

Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant - Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.

Unit 13 Chemistry of Hydrocarbons        

Alkanes (Structure, isomerism, conformation).

Stereo isomerism and chirality (origin of chirality, optical rotation, recemic mixture).

Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans).

Alkynes.

Arenes (structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenes).

Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum, Hydrocarbon from coal and petroleum cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives).

Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohols, alkyl halides).

Laboratory preparation of alkynes (preparation from calcium carbide and accetylene).

Physical properties of alkanes (boiling and melting points, solubility and density).

Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, subsitution and miscellaneous reactions).

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